Communication via eye blinks and eyebrow raises: video-based human-computer interfaces

TitleCommunication via eye blinks and eyebrow raises: video-based human-computer interfaces
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsBradski, Gary., Grauman, K.., Betke, M.., Lombardi, J.., and Gips, J.
JournalUniversal Access in the Information Society
Start Page359
Date Published2003
Abstract Two video-based human-computer interac- tion tools are introduced that can activate a binary switch and issue a selection command. “BlinkLink,” as the first tool is called, automatically detects a user’s eye blinks and accurately measures their durations. The sys- tem is intended to provide an alternate input modality to allow people with severe disabilities to access a com- puter. Voluntary long blinks trigger mouse clicks, while involuntary short blinks are ignored. The system enables communication using “blink patterns:” sequences of long and short blinks which are interpreted as semiotic mes- sages. The second tool, “EyebrowClicker,” automat- ically detects when a user raises his or her eyebrows and then triggers a mouse click. Both systems can initial- ize themselves, track the eyes at frame rate, and recover in the event of errors. No special lighting is required. The systems have been tested with interactive games and a spelling program. Results demonstrate overall detec- tion accuracy of 95.6% for BlinkLink and 89.0% for Eye- browClicker.
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